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Greece wants war reparations from Germany, Italy and Bulgaria amounting to GDP for a period of 33 years

26 October 2013 / 22:10:41  GRReporter
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In his historical study, urbanist Konstantinos Doksiadis (1913-1975) estimated the damage in terms of GDP for Greece caused by Germany, Italy and Bulgaria during the occupation in World War II for a period of 33 years, or Greece’s budget for 130 years.

However, of the 17.8 billion pre-war dollars which Greece claims, it has received only crumbs because of the opinion of the allies. Doksiadis, as government coordinator for all co-responsible ministries, calculated what it cost Greece.

The online edition of To Vima reviewed the report of Doksiadis, which is kept in the National Library of Greece under the title "Victims of Greece: claims and reparations in the Second World War."

Extermination with weapons and stoppage of exports

According to the report, compared to 1938, the decreased land processing and the average agricultural yield (1941-1944) reached 40% for cereals; up to 36% for legumes, 89% for tobacco, and up to 75% for other types such as vines. Forestry also suffered major damage. According to the survey, 25% of forests were cut down and Attica lost 75% of its forests. Draft animals decreased by 60% compared to 1939, while sheep and goats and poultry - by 50% and sows by 80%.

The mining industry (iron, manganese, nickel, chromium) was destroyed, while exports decreased by 29% in 1940 alone. As regards the overall trade balance - overall imports decreased by 6%, 10% and 12%, respectively, over the period 1941 to 1942, and exports - by 8%, 6% and 3%, respectively. Imports of meat to feed the population dropped almost to zero, as well as imports of live animals.

Complete destruction of infrastructure

According to the report, 75% of the Piraeus-Plati railway line was destroyed, as well as 100% of the Thessaloniki-Florina and Thessaloniki-Idomeni railways, and 23% of the Thessaloniki-Alexandroupoli railway line. About 80% of railway stations were destroyed, as well as 40% of bridges. Damage was estimated at 8 billion pre-war drachmes or 72 million pre-war dollars.

The road network also suffered damage – damage there amounted to 53,400,000 pre-war dollars. Equipment (cars, rollers, other machines) from the public and private sectors also suffered damage amounting to 4.2 pre-war dollars. According to Doksiadis, 85% of the infrastructure had been destroyed.

The Corinth Canal was destroyed

Damage of ports was also enormous. Its value reached 4.7 million pre-war dollars for the port of Piraeus, 1,300,000 pre-war dollars for the port of Volos and 1.2 million pre-war dollars for the port of Thessaloniki. In the Corinth Canal, the Germans sank ships and detonated the bridge in order to make it unusable for as long a period as possible. Damage amounted to 860,000 dollars.

The technical marvel of the interwar period was destroyed

Germans and Bulgarians destroyed large hydraulic and irrigation systems in fields around Thessaloniki and Serres, the construction of which had led to a sharp increase in agricultural production before the war. The damage amounted to 13.2% in Thessaloniki and 38.6% in Serres and Drama, reaching 2 billion pre-war dollars.

74% of cargo ships and 94.5% of passenger ships were destroyed. Of the 583 merchant ships that Greece had in 1939, 434 were destroyed.

A quarter of the housing stock was destroyed

A total of 409,000 buildings were destroyed, as well as 23.6% of the pre-war housing stock, of which 111,000 were destroyed by arson and revenge. Germans destroyed 208,500 buildings. The total cost of the devastation amounted to 61 billion pre-war drachmes.

According to Doksiadis’s report:

- 3,700 settlements suffered from bombings, robberies and arsons

- 1.2 million inhabitants, 18% of the population, became homeless

- 88,000 farming families were living in ruins and 100,000 urban families - in appalling conditions.

- 15,000 shopkeepers and artisans lost their shops

- 80,000 families sold their homes and lost their property

- 5,000 schools were destroyed

- 1.5 million families lived in houses without windows, light or heating.

Robbery and destruction of monuments and museums

Many monasteries and 7 large Byzantine churches were destroyed completely (6 of them by the Germans), 12 others suffered serious damage. Venetian buildings were destroyed, as well as libraries and museums.

According to Doksiadis, Germans caused injury to 87 archaeological sites, Italians to 39, and Bulgarians to 3. Archaeological treasures were also stolen – Germans stole from 42 museums, Italians - from 33, and Bulgarians - from 9.

Mass death because of inflation

Tags: Konstantinos Doksiadis Second World War reparations compensation damages GDP
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